Vitamin C Skin Care:Benefits Of Oranges

In many ways vitamin c and skin care are match made in heaven.  Vitamin c has the main function of aiding in collagen production.  Collagen is what gives our skin cells elasticity and youthfulness.When we are wounded our bones can be healed and our skin can be rejuvenate with the help of it.  Caring for our skin internally involves vitamin c, but now medicine and beauty care are trying to include it topically.  There are some hurdles to follow in this marriage of vitamin c in skin care creams and lotions. 
Vitamin c is highly unstable when utilized away from its natural formats.  It oxidizes easily and can become dangerous or ineffective for its purpose.  There is no doubt as to vitamin c’ skin care effectiveness. 
To remedy the main components problem with instability, ascorbic acid is being picked apart to find more stable usable components of the nutrient.  There are studies which show that vitamin c needs to be concentrated and applied under the appropriate conditions to be absorbed properly into our skin so as to offer us the best skin care benefits.
Products Currently Offering The Best Vitamin C Skin Care
Any products that offer vitamin cin a form that is absorbed by the skin and is concentrated is one that is going to give the best skin care and deliver the vitamin c the best.  Many products offer different derivatives of vitamin c but one of the most popular is a vitamin c skin care derivative known as Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate or MAP.  This derivative is less oxidizing and more stable than L-ascorbic acid, which is natural source vitamin c.  The caution with any vitamin c skin care product is that they deteriorate in air and light, so they must be kept sealed and in cool dark areas until used up, and many do not have long shelf lives.
Vitamin c skin care products are so popular simply because amongst all the skin care products vitamin c has the most scientific proof of its actual ability to help remove fine lines, wrinkles and other skin imperfections.It is hardly maintained in a product and as a result it is very expensive for a treatment.  Some spas claim that mixing vitamin c powder directly into facial creams immediately before treatment works as well, however ascorbic acid can be irritating to the skin.  Caution when looking into products for your skin make sure you talk to a professional about their process if you go to a spa.Read the ingredients of the sourcing product and the science which is claimed in their product before having it.  An average cost for a small 50ml vial of real vitamin c skin care product known as legitimate concentrate and is used in spas and other skin care facilities is about $60 to $100, so if you buy a large bottle doting vitamin c added and it has a sale sticker of $10, more than likely you are not getting the same benefits.

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Snoring – The Mellow but Worrying Habit

Snoring is a word that will give noisy sense in your mind. For some people, it’s very annoying. Living alone can make you never recognize that you are snoring. You will recognize that if there is someone who reminds you about that. They are the people who sleep around you. The person who is doing the snoring can enjoy his sleeping all night long, while others surround him will be awakened and bothered by that bothering sound.
The people surround the snoring person must be the ones who are ready to motivate finding the answer. In this case, the answer refers to the way to diminish or even abolish the snoring. It is because one person snoring can cause many problems for any other people in the household.
Sometimes, snoring can be truly painful for people who get much suffering by listening to that noise.In the other hand, it can be an indication that there is something trouble in your body. That will oblige several medical treatments.
You must talk with your family doctor to asses the real reason of snoring. Explain everything to him, such as what’s going on, what your concerns are, your family history along with your symptoms. The, you may be able to end up the consultation by getting the description and the way to fix the problem.

Things to Help
In the time of finding out the root of the problem, you may feel about finding stop snoring devices so that everybody can get several sleep. The doctor will not stop finding out the real cause of your snoring when you look for that device. But at least, by doing that you will provide a comfortable sense for people in your house to finally get several much needed rest. Rest is the right for each person, so don’t take them cruelly. Now, start to identify the counter devices that can help you until the problem is solved.
Additionally, seek a different position in sleeping will be supportive in reducing both the snoring and the noise at Once. Thus, it will help every person to get several sleep. If it doesn’t work, keep working with the doctor until you see about what can be done to overcome your problem.
Keep trying on your struggle will offer you a good effect. The snoring has gone. To make that change, you have to obey your doctor’s program for you and everything he required and suggested to make it all work. And finally, you will feel that it’s a great thing of spending a lot of time for getting the precious answer and can banish your worrying habit: snoring.
Don’t keep yourself trapped in doubt. Have more knowledge about snoring and get yourself updated with it y clicking the links here!

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Losing Weight is All About Counting Calories/Carbs and Exercising. Or Is It?

Losing Weight is All About Counting Calories/Carbs
and Exercising. Or Is It?
5 Tips to Consider When You Want To
Lose Fat Forever.
With two thirds of our population overweight (one third in the obese
category), watching our weight is no longer something we are doing
to look more appealing, or perhaps thinking about doing. It has become
a necessary action to prevent disease and increased health costs.
With physical activities being curtailed in schools and backyards and
more opportunity to sit in front of televisions, computers and game boys,
even our children are joining the ranks of the sedentary lifestyle which
promotes an overweight population. Adult diseases are becoming more
prominent in children. Adult onset diabetes has been renamed to
accommodate all the children who are being diagnosed with it, some as
early as in infancy.
So if you have ?given up? because counting and exercising hasn?t
worked for you, consider the following five tips. Which ones can help
you?
1. Check to see if you are sabotaging yourself in any way. Many of us find very unique ways to sabotage ourselves. Even
though they may not be related to food, they can play havoc with our
weight. Sabotage happens often when we are not aware of it. Becoming
aware of sabotage is important, but it is only the first step. We must also
be ready to move past our sabotage. If we ignore the sabotage and
continue to try to lose weight . . . well you know the story.
2. Get the right nutrients. It?s not just about the right
amount of carbs, fats or protein. A proper balance of the nutrients
contained in those carbs, fats and proteins can play a part in whether or
not you will lose weight happily and keep it off or if it is just another diet
that you must endure to wear a smaller size. A client of mine said it best
when she told me she ?dieted her way up to morbid obesity?. She started
at 106 lbs and after years of dieting peaked out at 255 lbs.
3. Use a balanced approach to lose and maintain your weight.
Yes, it is important to watch what you eat. Yes, it is imperative
to exercise so you don?t lose lean mass (muscle, bone, organ
tissue). It is also important to examine your stress levels and where
that stress is coming from. We all must eat. We all must move. We even
must have some stress. But what kind of food, exercise and stress and
how much we should have of each of them is important. A good balance
of each individually and in balance with each other is of major
importance in reaching and maintaining our weight goals.
4. Tweak your lifestyle. Lose 20 lbs in 10 days! Look
great in your bikini in just 30 days! We are led to believe that weight loss
is a quick-fix and anyone can do it. I went to college with a beauty queen
who told us she could lose 5 lbs in a couple days when she had an
appearance to make. At the time I was impressed. Now I know that we
can all do it. All we have to do is quit drinking water and eating food. The
food in our digestive system at any one time and the water in our blood
and cells can easily weigh 5 lbs. But isn?t weight loss supposed to get
rid of fat?
Well, the scale doesn?t know the difference. Success in long-term weight
loss comes from understanding that the extra pounds didn?t come on in
a few weeks or even a few months. If we are willing to make weight loss/
management a long-term project, we can realize a lifetime of success.
By making small, progressive changes in our lifestyle, and having an
appropriate support system, we set ourselves up for a happier, healthier
journey to our weight goals.
5. Forget about losing weight and strive to be healthy.
Have you every met anyone who has dieted for decades and all they got
was sporadic success with long-term failure? Then when they finally
decide to learn to love themselves as they are (all ???
pounds of themselves), and turn their attention to becoming more
healthy. . . the weight starts dropping off! Well our body doesn?t care
what we look like but it does care if we are healthy. Our bodies are
continually striving for homeostasis (a state of balance).
When our bodies are balanced, we are healthy. When something is out
of balance, our organs and cells will work hard to bring it back into
balance (no wonder we get tired). When we sabotage (there?s
that word again) our bodies by not giving them the nutrients and
exercise they require and/or giving them too much or the wrong kind of
stress, they can become overworked, resulting in loss of energy, weight
gain (or inappropriate loss) and/or disease.
So if you want to look your best and feel energized, you may want to
change your thoughts from losing weight to gaining health. Just the fact
of changing your thinking patterns from losing to gaining can put you
into a more positive mental state and could be the first step on your
personal journey to your goals.
? Jan Barosh 2004. Permission is granted to reprint this article in print
or on your web site so long as the following paragraph is included and
contact information is provided to http://www.janbarosh.com
Jan Barosh?s degree is in health and physical education with post-
graduate work in exercise science and psychology. She is a licensed
corporate wellness coach and a certified teleclass leader and has
helped adults and children be more healthy and fit for over 25 years.
Jan has developed a unique weight management program called
LifeWeight? which is being taught in the US and licensed for
distribution in the UK.
Article source: http://www.topiccenter.com/Health-and-Fitness/Weight-Loss/

Where to Begin with Wellness.

Dec 17 2010
Ten Steps Toward Strategic Health Promotion Programs
The Health Promotion Program management world is evolving rapidly. Each month, there are new research findings that support the premise that Health Promotion Programs and disease management (DM) have a long-term impact on health care costs.
Many large businesses that began Health Promotion Programs three to five years ago are showing savings in health, disability, and employees compensation costs. Small to mid-size businesses are watching all this and wondering where to start with wellness.
Getting senior management support and budget approval is one of the challenges at the starting of a Wellness Program. This is the case because Wellness Programs may be expensive, averaging $150-300 per staff member each year in large businesses.
Most of the savings are not realized for a number of years. This long-term investing is hard for organizations on the move.
The key to success for Wellness Programs is to take a strategic approach. Here are ten steps to consider when starting a Wellness Program.
1. Begin with executive management. Without executive management support, a wellness strategy can fall flat. Begin with the health of your executive team and discover your wellness champions at the top of the company.
2. Analyze the problem. Look at your health care claims and analyze the trends. Which conditions are driving your medical, disability, and workers’ compensation claims and which are modifiable? What’s worked and what has not therefore far? What’s the long-term impact of doing nothing?
3. Hold an initial wellness meeting. Invite your key stakeholders both inside and outside the business. Ask your broker to facilitate the meeting and invite key health vendors including health, disability, Employee Assistance Program (EAP), fitness, and occupational nursing.
Review claims and utilization data and identify key areas of concern. Look at current offerings and see how they can be tailored to the needs of the population.
4. Consider both healthful and unhealthful staff. Since 85 percent of claims are ordinarily attributed to 15 percent of claimants, it’s essential to reach those with the most expensive conditions while also reaching people  who are at risk for developing avoidable diseases in the future.
Voluntary health promotion programs such as lunchtime wellness workshops miss many of the individuals  who need them most. Consider health promotion programs that are population-wide or target intact workgroups. Health Promotion incentives help but do not motivate everybody.
5. Make sure to set short-term objectives for the health promotion programs. Make sure to set some realistic short-term objectives based on your key areas of concern. Are there any plan design changes that could have an immediate impact on spending? Are there some programmatic actions that could have immediate results?
6. Find out what personnel are thinking. Hold some focus groups to determine where individuals  are with wellness. What is working? What isn’t? Just how much interest do individuals  have in the Health Promotion Programs? What obstacles and barriers are personnel experiencing when they attempt to change behavior?
7. Be sure you have a high-impact Staff Member Assistance Program (EAP). Your first wellness dollars should go into upgrading your Staff Member Assistance Program (EAP). A highly utilized Staff Member Assistance Program (EAP) can provide a foundation for all your future wellness activities.
A good Staff Member Assistance Program (EAP) is a trusted link to the hearts and minds of personnel.  At no additional cost, the Staff Member Assistance Program (EAP) can provide needed follow-up coaching and personal attention for personnel who are working on modifiable health behaviors or involved in disease management (DM) programs.
Nutritionists, fitness, pregnancy, and stress management professionals are all part of a high-value Employee Assistance Program (EAP).
8. Be certain to set three to five year objectives for health care savings and measure them. Get help from your broker and insurance carrier help you on long-term objectives for your health, disability, and personnel compensation plans.
Establish program metrics that’ll help you to measure Return On Investment. Go beyond participation rates, completion rates and program satisfaction. Measure changes in readiness, changes in behavior, and changes in risk factors. Establish rigorous methods to measure healthcare savings over the long term.
9. Make sure to set objectives for organizational health. Consider the more intangible advantages of a wellness program and quantify them whenever possible. Include staff member turnover rates, cost of new hires, staff member morale, benefit satisfaction data, and corporation of choice issues in establishing objectives. Establish ways to measure success in these areas.
10. Add specifics to your short and long-term plan. Include a program strategy, a communication strategy, and an incentive strategy that’ll fit with your corporate culture. Focus on integration of related components along a health continuum with communications that are focused, simple, and human.
Establish a budget that includes key components like consumer education, wellness, health risk assessments, and regular biometric screens.This entry was written by admin and posted on December 17, 2010 at 10:23 am and filed under Health Promotion, Wellness Programs. Bookmark the permalink. Follow any comments here with the RSS feed for this post.

Top 7 Anti-Aging Skin Care Tips | Health Club

Anti-Aging Skin Care Tips
As a person ages it is very important that they take care of their physical health and well-being and this includes proper skin care. Ideally skin care to prevent wrinkles, fine lines, sun spots and imperfections should start when a person is young. The good news though is that with all the anti-aging skin care products and procedures available today it is never too late to turn back time.Tips for protecting and improving skin at any age:
1. Hydrate – Drinking an adequate, and not excessive, amount of water daily helps flush toxins from the body, helps reduce the look of sunken eyes and dark circles and can restore plumpness to the skin. 8-10 glasses should do quite nicely, more if exercising is involved.
2. Don’t Smoke – Skin needs circulation to be healthy and smoking impairs that dramatically. The poisons and toxins from smoking all rise to the surface of the skin making it dull, ashen and unhealthy.
3. Use SPF protection EVERY day – Use a facial lotion with an SPF of at least 15 even on a cloudy day. This will protect against fine lines. If wrinkles already exist, use an SPF lotion that includes anti-aging ingredients so that it is protecting and restoring skin at the same time.
4. Eat Healthy – Consuming an adequate amount of fruits, vegetables, whole grains and lean proteins will promote healthy skin from the inside out and helps retain that youthful appearance.
5. Exercise – Just like eating healthy, staying in good physical shape will promote that vibrant young glow to skin and battle the signs of aging. Exercise also reduces stress
6. Remove makeup every night – Sleeping with makeup on will leave bacteria filled smudges on pillows, clogs pores, allows aging free radicals remain on the skin and can dehydrate skin contributing to wrinkles and lines. A fresh, clean, well moisturized face before sleep will restore and replenish any age skin.
7. Use the proper night cream – Going overboard with multiple products at night is unnecessary and may even cause a harmful skin reaction. Choosing one product specifically designed for whatever anti-aging effects desired is the safest choice.
For deeper wrinkles that creams can’t remedy a medical procedure such as Botox injections performed by someone with Botox training is a possibility. It is important to find someone with proper Botox training to avoid any potential complications.
Eddie Adams is a Content writer with an interest in topics relating to health, cosmetics, tourism and green living. You can follow him @thefreshhealth on Twitter 🙂

This site is for information and support only and NOT a substitute for professional diagnosis and treatment!

Helpful Tips To Manage Blood Sugar Level | Health Club

So far you have heard the doctors and you know all about tight control for diabetes. The results of Diabetes Control and Complications trails was published in the year 1993, which stated that reducing A1C levels keeps away complications and allows you to live longer. We all know this and we have been following it. However many type 1 and type 2 patients who have been working hard to manage this illness are suspected to do even better.
The diabetes control is different for everyone, and here are few suggestions that can help you improve the condition.Set a goal
As per American Diabetes Association, people suffering from diabetes must set a goal for A1C-which states that the average of 3 months blood sugar should be below 7%.  Some even recommend it to be 6.5 % but most doctors would be pleased with the either.
So what are you aiming at? Speak to your general practitioner or your dietician and see if you could aim towards a tighter control. Necessary tip- Do not aim for the impossible. If your current A1C is very high, you will have to give it time and set a goal that is reasonable.Keep a check on your sugar level
Nothing could be more obvious than this, but this simple thing is overlooked in the chaos of day to day routine. If you are not monitoring your sugar level then how can you expect yourself to keep a control on it? As per Diabetes Control and Complications Trail, checking blood sugar level once a day was a standard practice. If you are looking for a tighter control, check it before and after the meal and you will be able to understand how well your body is able to take insulin. A constant check helps you find better ways as to how to control diabetes and if something is not working right, you can switch to something else.
Today, accurate glucose monitoring devices are available in the market that allows you to check your blood sugar level at home without any medical assistance.Glucose tablets should be handy
The real challenge is dealing with the lows when trying to maintain a normal blood sugar level. Take it this way- 40 is considered problematic low which is only 50 points lower than a great sugar level that is 90. And this is 200 points below that is called a higher sugar level which is 240. Low sugar level can make you feel miserable and can increase the risk of diabetic complications. Carrying a glucose tablet can help you vex the problem and there will be no sudden attacks. Carrying carbohydrate drink or food is also advisable.Time for coaching
Diabetes is something brief and it is important to get some education on it. It would be hard dealing with it if you have no idea about the causes of diabetes and its symptoms of diabetes. At time the situation is that you have dealt with the disease for long and you would want a doctor in his 20s or 30s to guide you on the same. You feel that you can get along with it on your own but this is not how it should be, you have to be open about your disease and be honest about what you are going through. Diabetes patients need to have discipline in life and a positive outlook can always help.
Follow these steps and you can definitely control your sugar level:Maintain a consistent eating habit with some healthy carbs in dietManaging weight can help control diabetesMorning walk, yoga and exercising daily is goodFasting is not advisable for diabetic patientsGreen tea has always proved good for diabetics
Author bio:
Joshlin hill is an expert medical writer and have published many of his writing on effective way for diabetes control. Continue reading for more details on the ways to manage your blood sugar level.

This site is for information and support only and NOT a substitute for professional diagnosis and treatment!

Recovering from the Unthinkable: Bouncing Back after Brain Injury | Health Club

Bouncing Back after Brain Injury
The brain is the most amazing, intricate muscle in the human body. Damage to the brain, whether it is slight or severe, can be detrimental and have a devastating effect on the rest of the body. Thankfully, there have been significant medical advances that give hope to brain injury sufferers for survival and recovery.The Window of Opportunity 
After the initial trauma to the head and brain, the human body has a small window of time in which it needs to become stable, accessed, and ultimately treated. The sooner the body becomes stable, the less likely the injury will be too severe to recover from. Rehabilitation should begin immediately after stabilization for the best success.Advanced Treatments for Brain Injuries
No two brain injuries are alike, and no two recovery plans should be either. A combination of therapies must be administered. Physical therapy will focus on the recovery of the use of the muscles in the body for movement. This is done with the help of new techniques like water or electrical stimulation.
Cognitive therapy focuses on restoring previous cognitive function, or re-teaching a new method that adapts to the injured person’s current physical and mental state. Occupational therapy is needed to help learn to cope with the daily tasks a person faces and social interactions. The advances in these areas have been tremendous, and there are hundreds of new methods, albeit expensive ones, that therapists are now using to help patients recover and lead a normal life.The Cost of Recovery
One study reports that in the year 2000, brain injuries directly andindirectly cost Americans over $60 billion. Those costs stem from initial treatment, ongoing recovery, loss of the ability to work, and injury-related equipment and medications. Medical insurance does not often cover the entire cost of such a serious trauma and subsequent recovery. Fortunately, there are capable brain injury attorneys that fight hard for victims and represent their best interests when it is necessary to recuperate financial support from a third party.
Finding the inner strength to bounce back from a brain injury is not easy, but, as so many have proven, it can be done. It’s often said that the mind is a powerful thing, and that couldn’t be more true for persons recovering from a brain trauma. Combined with medical treatment, positive thinking and visualization can be the difference between simply surviving and thriving.

This site is for information and support only and NOT a substitute for professional diagnosis and treatment!

Toxins Stored By Your Body | Health Club

Feeling tired and sluggish? Haven’t been treating your body as well as you might have? Looking for the perfect detox recipe? Look no further. Here at Detox Recipe, we are dedicated to bringing you the widest variety of information and wisdom about all kinds of detox ideas available anywhere, to get you the detox cleanse you need.

For the uninitiated, a good detox cleanse targets the harmful toxins that we all ingest sometimes from eating the wrong foods, or from being around other toxic substances like smoke and chemicals. Today’s world is full of toxins – there’s no avoiding them. And if we pile on processed foods that are full of preservatives and other scientific “miracles”, who knows what accumulates in our bodies. Over a span of years, the untold amount of toxins the human body stores in fat cells, in the colon, and in organs like the liver and kidneys can be downright scary.
All of those toxins stored by your body can naturally cause problems. Immunity problems and free radical molecular damage are just two of the life changing problems that may be traced, at least in part, to stored toxins in the body. Is a good detox cleanse starting to sound attractive?
If you have the feeling that your system is working sluggishly and could use a healthy detox cleanse, or that you’ve built up more than your share of impurities and need to flush your system, get yourself a good detox recipe and go to it. The best detox recipes tend to be safe and natural, stressing fresh chemical free foods. In fact, the simplest detox cleanse consists solely of water. If that is too spartan for you, there are plenty of detox ideas consisting of delicious nuts, fresh fruit (including decadent smoothies), raw vegetables, and whole grains like brown rice. And as you might have guessed, weight loss and reduced body fat can be just two of the side benefits.
The key to a good detox cleanse is to target and eliminate the impurities that have built up, through the use of good, healthy, healing foods and natural vitamins. Remember though, if you have (or suspect you may have) a medical condition that requires attention, you must seek professional help from a licensed practitioner. Strategies like colon detox recipes or bath detox recipes are a wonderful asset to your regimen, but are not a substitute for the necessary advice of your doctor. The advice offered here is not intended to substitute for that advice. If you arrived here looking for the other kind of detox, please see drug detox.
In that spirit, feel free to browse around for your perfect detox recipe!

This site is for information and support only and NOT a substitute for professional diagnosis and treatment!

Building the Body You Want | Health Club

Fitness body
A fit body is a healthy body, and it takes hard work to get there. Working out and eating right are the most important things you can do to get the body you have always wanted. The right nutrition will deliver vitamins and minerals throughout your body, and exercise will strengthen muscle, build muscle and increase heart health. Here are five tips for getting the fit body you have always wanted:Stay Hydrated
Hydration is absolutely necessary. Nearly 75 percent of all Americans are dehydrated. Drinking enough water will help you work more efficiently. Your body will also have proper circulation of nutrients. At least three liters or 120 ounces of water per day is recommended for active men.
Body and Fitness, Health and Fitness © MyatlantapersonaltrainerEat Your Fruits And Veggies
Your diet should be mostly whole fruits and veggies. Lightly steamed veggies are acceptable. There is nothing wrong with a gigantic salad filled with veggies, nuts and fruits. Go easy on the dressing, and you will have a super-healthy meal. To aid your diet, you may want to look into besthgh.com for information on hgh supplements.Don’t Over Train
Not enough emphasis is placed on the importance of not over training. People wrongfully assume that more is better when it comes to exercise. This isn’t true. Less is more if you want to build muscle, strength and endurance. A solid 45 minutes to one hour of exercise per day is optimal. Going over that strains your muscles. If you aren’t training for the Olympics, then go easy on yourself.Use Your Body
Body weight exercises are superior to weights in a number of ways. Push ups, pull ups, squats, lunges, dips and ab work will give you a ripped body without any expensive equipment or tools. Your body weight serves as a perfect gym. When you can handle your own weight without any effort, you know you have achieved a fit body.Don’t Give Up
It’s easy to give up when you don’t see the results you want. Keep pushing yourself. Change your routine often. Don’t stop just because you haven’t changed your body in the time you set. Results will happen if you keep living a healthy lifestyle and working out.
Building the body you have always wanted will take time. The above tips will help you get on the right path to having defined muscles, less body fat overall and plenty of energy to keep you going.

This site is for information and support only and NOT a substitute for professional diagnosis and treatment!

Calcium and Milk: What’s Best for Your Bones and Health? | Health Club

Introduction
Those advertisements pushing milk as the answer to strong bones are almost inescapable. But does “got milk?” really translate into “got strong bones?”
The pro-milk faction believes that increased calcium intake—particularly in the form of the currently recommended three glasses of milk per day—will help prevent osteoporosis, the weakening of bones. Each year, osteoporosis leads to more than 1.5 million fractures, including 300,000 broken hips.

On the other side are those who believe that consuming a lot of milk and other dairy products will have little effect on the rate of fractures but may contribute to problems such as heart disease or prostate cancer.
Which view is right? The final answers aren’t in. But here is a summary of what’s currently known about calcium and its effects on the body.What Is Calcium, and Where Do We Get It?
Calcium is a mineral that the body needs for numerous functions, including building and maintaining bones and teeth, blood clotting, the transmission of nerve impulses, and the regulation of the heart’s rhythm. Ninety-nine percent of the calcium in the human body is stored in the bones and teeth. The remaining 1 percent is found in the blood and other tissues.
The body gets the calcium it needs in two ways. One is by eating foods or supplements that contain calcium. Good sources include dairy products, which have the highest concentration per serving of highly absorbable calcium, and dark leafy greens or dried beans, which have varying amounts of absorbable calcium. Calcium supplements often contain vitamin D; taking calcium paired with vitamin D seems to be more beneficial for bone health than taking calcium alone. (Read more about calcium and osteoporosis.)
The other way the body gets calcium is by pulling it from bones. This happens when blood levels of calcium drop too low, usually when it’s been awhile since having eaten a meal containing calcium. Ideally, the calcium that is “borrowed” from the bones will be replaced at a later point. But, this doesn’t always happen. Most important, this payback can’t be accomplished simply by eating more calcium.Growing Healthy Bones
Bone is living tissue that is always in flux. Throughout the lifespan, bones are constantly being broken down and built up in a process known as remodeling. Bone cells called osteoblasts build bone, while other bone cells called osteoclasts break down bone.
In healthy individuals who get enough calcium and physical activity, bone production exceeds bone destruction up to about age 30. After that, destruction typically exceeds production.What Is Osteoporosis?
Osteoporosis, or “porous bones,” is the weakening of bones caused by an imbalance between bone building and bone destruction. People typically lose bone as they age, despite consuming the recommended intake of calcium necessary to maintain optimal bone health. An estimated 10 million Americans—8 million women and 2 million men—have osteoporosis. Another 34 million have low bone mass, placing them at increased risk for osteoporosis. (1)
Achieving adequate calcium intake and maximizing bone stores during the time when bone is rapidly deposited (up to age 30) provides an important foundation for the future. But it will not prevent bone loss later in life. The loss of bone with aging is the result of several factors, including genetic factors, physical inactivity, and lower levels of circulating hormones (estrogen in women and testosterone in men).
Postmenopausal women account for 80 percent of all cases of osteoporosis because estrogen production declines rapidly at menopause. Of course, men are also at risk of developing osteoporosis, but they tend to do so 5 to 10 years later than women, since testosterone levels do not fall abruptly the way estrogen does in women. It is estimated that osteoporosis will cause half of all women over age 50 to suffer a fracture of the hip, wrist, or vertebra.How Can Osteoporosis Be Slowed Down?
Preventing osteoporosis depends on two things: making the strongest, densest bones possible during the first 30 years of life and limiting the amount of bone loss in adulthood.
There are a number of lifestyle factors that can help with the latter:Getting regular exercise, especially weight-bearing and muscle strengthening exercise.Getting adequate vitamin D, whether through diet, exposure to sunshine, or supplements.Consuming enough calcium to reduce the amount the body has to borrow from bone.Consuming adequate vitamin K, found in green, leafy vegetables.Not getting too much preformed vitamin A.Preventing Bone Loss in Adulthood
Several complementary strategies can help prevent or minimize bone loss during adulthood and old age. These include:Getting Regular Exercise
Physical activity that puts some strain or stress on bones causes the bones to retain and possibly even gain density throughout life. Cells within the bone sense this stress and respond by making the bone stronger and denser. Such “weight-bearing” exercises include walking, dancing, jogging, weightlifting, stair-climbing, racquet sports, and hiking.5 Quick Tips for Getting More Physical Activity:
Ideas on how to fit exercise into your lifestyle 
Staying Active: Every Body’s Path to Better Health: A closer look at the benefits of physical activity
Swimming is a useful form of exercise for the heart and cardiovascular system. But because water supports the bones, rather than putting stress on them, it’s not considered a good “weight-bearing” exercise for bone strength. In addition, physical activity doesn’t strengthen all bones, just those that are stressed, so you need a variety of exercises or activities to keep all your bones healthy.
Another function of physical activity, probably at least as important as its direct effect on bone mass, is its role in increasing muscle strength and coordination. With greater muscle strength, one can often avoid falls and situations that cause fractures. Making physical activity a habit can help maintain balance and avoid falls.Getting Enough Calcium
Despite the debates surrounding milk and calcium, one thing is clear: adequate calcium—both for bone development and for non-bone functions—is key to reducing the risk of osteoporosis. However, the healthiest or safest amount of dietary calcium hasn’t yet been established. Different scientific approaches have yielded different estimates, so it’s important to consider all the evidence.
Maximum-calcium-retention studies, which examine the maximum amount of calcium that can be forced into bones, suggest a fairly high requirement.To ensure that 95 percent of the population gets this much calcium, the National Academy of Sciences established the following recommended intake levels:1,000 milligrams/day for those age 19 to 501,200 milligrams/day for those age 50 or over1,000 milligrams/day for pregnant or lactating adult women
But the maximum-calcium-retention studies are short term and therefore have important limitations. To detect how the body adapts to different calcium intakes over a long period of time—and to get the big picture of overall bone strength—requires studies of longer duration.
The results from such long-term studies may be surprising to some. While they do not question the importance of calcium in maximizing bone strength, they cast doubt on the value of consuming the large amounts currently recommended for adults.
In particular, these studies suggest that high calcium intake doesn’t actually appear to lower a person’s risk for osteoporosis. For example, in the large Harvard studies of male health professionals and female nurses, individuals who drank one glass of milk (or less) per week were at no greater risk of breaking a hip or forearm than were those who drank two or more glasses per week. (2, 3) When researchers combined the data from the Harvard studies with other large prospective studies, they still found no association between calcium intake and fracture risk. (4) Also, the combined results of randomized trials that compared calcium supplements with a placebo showed that calcium supplements did not protect against fractures of the hip or other bones. Moreover, there was some suggestion that calcium supplements taken without vitamin D might even increase the risk of hip fractures.
Additional evidence further supports the idea that American adults may not need as much calcium as is currently recommended. For example, in countries such as India, Japan, and Peru where average daily calcium intake is as low as 300 milligrams per day (less than a third of the U.S. recommendation for adults, ages 19 to 50), the incidence of bone fractures is quite low. Of course, these countries differ in other important bone-health factors as well—such as level of physical activity and amount of sunlight—which could account for their low fracture rates.
Ideally, these issues might be resolved by randomizing a large group of adults to get different amounts of calcium and following them to see how many would eventually break a bone. In fact, a few such studies have been conducted, and they have not provided evidence of benefit, as noted above. However, most of these studies were small or of short duration, so they could not rule out the possibility of a small benefit from supplementation. Other randomized trials have combined calcium in combination with vitamin D, which could obscure the true effects of calcium.
To illustrate the different conclusions drawn from examining the same body of data, a British committee that is comparable to the U.S. group that established calcium requirements here concluded that 700 milligrams per day was enough for individuals age 19 and older.Getting Enough Vitamin D
Vitamin D plays a critical role in maintaining bone health. When blood levels of calcium begin to drop, the body responds in several ways. It promotes the conversion of vitamin D into its active form, which then travels to the intestines (to encourage greater calcium absorption into the blood) and to the kidneys (to minimize calcium loss in the urine).
For bone health, an adequate intake of vitamin D is no less important than calcium. Vitamin D is found in milk and vitamin supplements, and it can be made by the skin when it is exposed to sunlight in the summertime. But not all sunlight is created equal. Above 40 degrees latitude (north of San Francisco, Denver, Indianapolis, and Philadelphia), the winter sunlight isn’t strong enough to promote vitamin D formation. Sunscreens also prevent the formation of vitamin D, although they are still recommended to reduce risk of sun-induced skin cancer and skin damage.Vitamin D Overview
: How much vitamin D you need each day, and what’s the best way to get enough 
Ask the Expert—Vitamin D: An interview with Prof. Edward Giovannucci about vitamin D’s role in disease prevention
An examination of clinical trials of vitamin D for the prevention of osteoporosis found that getting 700 to 800 IUs of vitamin D per day decreases the risk of hip and non-vertebral fractures; (5) vitamin D may be even more effective when taken in conjunction with calcium. (6) A similar analysis of the effect of vitamin D on falls indicated that supplementation with vitamin D reduces the risk of falls among older individuals by more than 20 percent. (7)
Look for a multivitamin that supplies 1,000 IU of vitamin D per day. If your multi only has 400 IU of vitamin D, consider taking an extra supplement to get you up to 1,000 IU or 2,000 IU per day. Some people may need 3,000 or 4,000 IU per day for adequate blood levels, particularly if they have darker skin, spend winters in the northern U.S., or have little exposure to direct sunlight. If you fall into these groups, ask your physician to order a blood test for vitamin D.Getting Enough Vitamin K
Vitamin K, which is found mainly in green, leafy vegetables, likely plays one or more important roles in calcium regulation and bone formation. Low levels of circulating vitamin K have been linked with low bone density, and supplementation with vitamin K shows improvements in biochemical measures of bone health. (8) A report from the Nurses’ Health Study suggests that women who get at least 110 micrograms of vitamin K a day are 30 percent less likely to break a hip than women who get less than that. (9) Among the nurses, eating a serving of lettuce or other green, leafy vegetable a day cut the risk of hip fracture in half when compared with eating one serving a week. Data from the Framingham Heart Study also shows an association between high vitamin K intake and reduced risk of hip fracture in men and women, and increased bone mineral density in women. (10, 11) Getting one or more servings per day of broccoli, Brussels sprouts, dark green lettuce, collard greens, or kale should be enough to meet the daily recommended target of 120 micrograms per day for men and 90 micrograms per day for women.
Some other factors may also help lower the risk of osteoporosis:Take care with caffeine and cola. Although the votes aren’t all in, there is some evidence that drinking a lot of coffee—about four or more cups per day—can increase the risk of fracture. Caffeine tends to promote calcium excretion in urine. Meanwhile, the Framingham Osteoporosis Study has found that older women who drink cola every day have lower bone mineral density than those who drink it less than once a month. (12) This may be due to cola’s high levels of phosphorous, which may alter the dietary balance between calcium and phosphorous and thereby weaken bones.Get enough protein, but not too much. The body needs protein to build healthy bones. But as your body digests protein, it releases acids into the bloodstream, which the body neutralizes by drawing calcium from the bones. Following a high-protein diet for a few weeks probably won’t have much effect on bone strength. Doing it for a long time, though, could weaken bone. In the Nurses’ Health Study, for example, women who ate more than 95 grams of protein a day were 20 percent more likely to have broken a wrist over a 12-year period when compared to those who ate an average amount of protein (less than 68 grams a day). (13) But this area of research is still controversial, and findings have not been consistent. Some studies suggest increasing protein increases risk of fractures; others associate high-protein diets with increased bone mineral density. It is still unclear what level of protein intake provides the best protection against osteoporosis, and more research is needed.Get enough vitamin A, but not too much. Long associated with good vision, vitamin A has also been found to direct the process of borrowing and redepositing calcium in bone. However, too much preformed vitamin A (also known as retinol) can promote fractures. Choose a multivitamin supplement that has all or the majority of its vitamin A in the form of beta-carotene, a vitamin A precursor, since beta-carotene does not increase one’s fracture risk. Many multivitamin manufacturers have already reduced the amount of preformed vitamin A in their products.
Postmenopausal women may also want to talk to a health care provider about taking a medication that can strengthen bones. The estrogen in postmenopausal hormones can compensate for the drop in estrogen levels after menopause, helping to prevent—and perhaps even partially reverse—bone loss. However, hormone replacement therapy has fallen from grace as the mainstay for preventing osteoporosis after results from several studies showed that it increased the risk of breast cancer, stroke, and blood clots. (14) Other medications such as alendronate (Fosamax), risedronate (Actonel), calcitonin (Miacalcin), raloxifene (Evista), and parathyroid hormone (Fort?o) have been approved for the prevention or treatment of osteoporosis.Should You Get Calcium from Milk?
When most people in the United States think of calcium, they immediately think of milk. But should this be so? Milk is actually only one of many sources of calcium—dark leafy green vegetables and some types of legumes are among the other sources—and there are some important reasons why milk may not be the best source for everyone.
These reasons include the following:Lactose Intolerance
Many people have some degree of lactose intolerance. For them, eating or drinking dairy products causes problems like cramping, bloating, gas, and diarrhea. These symptoms can range from mild to severe. Certain groups are much more likely to have lactose intolerance. For example, 90 percent of Asians, 70 percent of blacks and Native Americans, and 50 percent of Hispanics are lactose intolerant, compared to only about 15 percent of people of Northern European descent.
One alternative for those who are lactose intolerant but who still enjoy consuming dairy products is to take a pill containing enzymes that digest milk sugar along with the dairy product, or to consume milk that has the lactase enzyme added to it.High Saturated Fat Content
Many dairy products are high in saturated fats, and a high saturated fat intake is a risk factor for heart disease. And while it’s true that most dairy products are now available in fat-reduced or nonfat options, the saturated fat that’s removed from dairy products is inevitably consumed by someone, often in the form of premium ice cream, butter, or baked goods.
Strangely, it’s often the same people who purchase these higher fat products who also purchase the low-fat dairy products, so it’s not clear that they’re making great strides in cutting back on their saturated fat consumption. (For more information on dietary fats, read the Nutrition Source article Fats and Cholesterol: Out with the Bad, In with the Good.)Possible Increased Risk of Ovarian Cancer
High levels of galactose, a sugar released by the digestion of lactose in milk, have been studied as possibly damaging to the ovaries and leading to ovarian cancer. Although such associations have not been reported in all studies, there may be potential harm in consuming high amounts of lactose. A recent pooled analysis of 12 prospective cohort studies, which included more than 500,000 women, found that women with high intakes of lactose—equivalent to that found in 3 cups of milk per day—had a modestly higher risk of ovarian cancer, compared to women with the lowest lactose intakes. (15) The study did not find any association between overall milk or dairy product intake and ovarian cancer. Some researchers have hypothesized, however, that modern industrial milk production practices have changed milk’s hormone composition in ways that could increase the risk of ovarian and other hormone-related cancers. (16) More research is needed.Probable Increased Risk of Prostate Cancer
A diet high in calcium has been implicated as a probable risk factor for prostate cancer. (17) In a Harvard study of male health professionals, men who drank two or more glasses of milk a day were almost twice as likely to develop advanced prostate cancer as those who didn’t drink milk at all. (18) The association appears to be with calcium itself, rather than with dairy products in general: A more recent analysis of the Harvard study participants found that men with the highest calcium intake—at least 2,000 milligrams a day—had nearly double the risk of developing fatal prostate cancer as those who had the lowest intake (less than 500 milligrams per day). (19)
Clearly, although more research is needed, we cannot be confident that high milk or calcium intake is safe.The Bottom Line: Recommendations for Calcium Intake and Bone Health
Adequate, lifelong dietary calcium intake is necessary to reduce the risk of osteoporosis. Consuming adequate calcium and vitamin D and performing regular, weight-bearing exercise are also important to build maximum bone density and strength. After age 30, these factors help slow bone loss, although they cannot completely prevent bone loss due to aging.
Milk and dairy products are a convenient source of calcium for many people. They are also a good source of protein and are fortified with vitamins D and A. At this time, however, the optimal intake of calcium is not clear, nor is the optimal source or sources of calcium. As noted earlier, the National Academy of Sciences currently recommends that people ages 19 to 50 consume 1,000 milligrams of calcium per day, and that those age 50 or over get 1,200 milligrams per day. Reaching 1,200 milligrams per day would usually require drinking two to three glasses of milk per day—or taking calcium supplements—over and above an overall healthy diet.
However, these recommendations are based on very short-term studies, and are likely to be higher than what people really need. Currently, there’s no good evidence that consuming more than one serving of milk per day in addition to a reasonable diet (which typically provides about 300 milligrams of calcium per day from nondairy sources) will reduce fracture risk. Because of unresolved concerns about the risk of ovarian and prostate cancer, it may be prudent to avoid higher intakes of dairy products.
At moderate levels, though, consumption of calcium and dairy products has benefits beyond bone health, including possibly lowering the risk of high blood pressure and colon cancer. (20–25) While the blood pressure benefits appear fairly small, the protection against colon cancer seems somewhat larger, and most of the latter benefit comes from having just one or maybe two glasses of milk per day in addition to what we get from other foods in our diet. Getting more than this doesn’t seem to lower risk further.
For individuals who are unable to digest—or who dislike—dairy products and for those who simply prefer not to consume large amounts of such foods, other options are available. Calcium can also be found in dark green, leafy vegetables, such as kale and collard greens, as well as in dried beans and legumes.
Calcium is also found in spinach and chard, but these vegetables contain oxalic acid, which combines with the calcium to form calcium oxalate, a chemical salt that makes the calcium less available to the body. A variety of calcium-fortified foods, such as orange juice and soy milk, are now on the market.
Calcium can also be ingested as a supplement, and if you do go the supplement route, it’s best to choose one that includes some vitamin D. Research suggests that calcium-only supplements do not protect against fractures, and may in fact increase risk of fractures. (4) There’s also some emerging evidence that taking calcium-only supplements may possibly increase the risk of heart attacks—another reason to avoid calcium-only supplements. (26) Men may want to avoid calcium supplements because of questions about possible risks of prostate cancer; if men do take a calcium supplement, limiting supplement intake to 500 milligrams of calcium per day seems prudent.
Antacids contain calcium, but do not contain vitamin D. So if you choose antacids as a calcium source, you may want to consider taking a separate vitamin D supplement. Discuss your options with a health care provider. (Read more about vitamin D and health.)

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